Gamekeeping and hunting in the Middle Ages were not only for amusement, but chiefly a source of great profit for the King and the nobility who owned the woods. The feudal gamekeepers and huntsmen also undertook woodsmanship - in addition to their obligation to look after the game, they took charge of the forest and its protection. In the forests it was prohibited to hunt deer, fallow-deer, boar or any other game, violation of which was a criminal act subject to heavy fines, or even, in the case of repeated infringements, physical punishment. The same was true for unauthorized logging and collecting of timber. Many poachers came from the ranks of the poor and had not very much to lose, which quite often resulted in physical conflicts with the huntsman when they were caught red-handed.